【亚博提款安全快速】英语十二大基础语法体系6:非谓语动词
发布时间:2021-09-09  

亚博取款免手续费|1、我喜欢做饭。“ I like cooking. ” 本句中,“like”(喜欢)是谓语。

“cooking”(做饭)是宾语,用动名词形式。又如:“ He likes cooking. ”在英语中。

谓语动词经常随着主语的人称、数而变化,但动名词作宾语时是稳定的。 2、对我来说,学英语不容易。

“ It\' s not easy for me to learn English.” 3、从太空看,地球是个蓝色的球体。 “Seen from the space, the earth is a blue sphere.” 请比力这些句子的中英文。

在这几个汉语句子中,做饭、学英语、从太空看划分作句子的宾语、主语和状语,可是其动词形式“做”、“学”、“看”没有变化。而在这几句英语中,“做饭”酿成了cooking, “学”酿成了to learn,“看”酿成了seen. 动词形式发生了变化,而且必须发生变化,因为这些句子有另外的谓语动词。

因此这些动词叫做“非谓语动词”,又叫“非限定性动词”,他们没有人称和数的变化。这是英汉动词的庞大差异,也是中国人学英语的一个难点,同时也是在使用英语时容易犯错误的地方。需要特别注意的是:英语的单句一般只有而且必须有一个主谓结构,即一个谓语,如果单句中泛起了另外的动词,这些动词就要改变形式。

以上英语句子中cooking, to learn, seen 等具有动词特征,可是在句子中不能作谓语的动词形式,就叫动词的非谓语形式,也叫非谓语动词。 我们再比力 “I like cooking.” 与 “He likes cooking.”这两句话主语差别,谓语动词like形式变了,但意义没有变化。

而cooking 没有任何变化。再看 “It is not easy for me to learn English.” 和 “It is not easy for him to learn English.” “对我”for me, “对他”for him之后的 “to learn”没有任何变化。可以看出,非谓语动词是不随人称和数的变化而变化的,它们不受人称和数的限定,所以又叫“非限定动词”。 动词在句子中除了充当谓语外,还可以起名词、形容词或副词的作用,在句子中充当主语、宾语、表语、补语、定语和状语。

这就是动词的非谓语形式。当句子中需要用某种行动作主语、宾语或作某种修饰、说明的身分时,就要使用这种形式。 动词的非谓语形式有三种: (1)动词不定式:to study (to + 动词原形) (2)分词:studying (现在分词)、studied (已往分词) (3)动名词:studying (形式与现在分词相同) 动词非谓语形式仍具有动词的一般特征,可以带有宾语、状语等组成短语。 动词非谓语形式有以下几种形式变化(以write为例): 形态 主动 被动 动词不定式 一般 Towrite Tobewritten 举行 Tobewriting 完成 Tohavewritten Tohavebeenwritten 完成举行 Tohavebeenwriting 现在分词和动名词 一般 Writing Beingwritten 完成 Havingwritten Havingbeenwritten 一般 written A、 动词不定式 其形式是“to+动词原形”。

to是不定式符号,无词义。其否认式是在to前面加上not, never等否认词。 不定式可以有自己的逻辑主语,由for引出,加在不定式短语前面。

如果不定式的逻辑主语是表现不定式行动的蒙受者,则不定式用被动语态。所谓逻辑主语,就是指非谓语动词等行动的执行者。由于非谓语动词等带有动词的特征,但又不是谓语动词,所以这个行动的执行者就不能称为主语,而在逻辑上又是这个行动的执行者,所以就称为逻辑主语。

如果不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式所表现的行动的蒙受者,这个不定式一般要用被动语态。疑问词(who, whom,whose, what, which, when, where, why, how还包罗whether)等后面加不定式组成不定式短语,可做主语,表语,宾语等。

(一)作主语。 在不定式短语作主语的句子中,往往用 it 作形式主语,而不把不定式短语放在句子的后面。

如: To die like that is a terrible thing.=It is a terrible thing to die like that. 象那样死去是一件恐怖的事。( it 作形式主语,把真正的主语to die like that放在后面) To know oneself is difficult.=It’s difficult to know oneself. 有自知之明不容易。 To tell a lie is not always easy.= It’s not always easy to tell a lie. 撒谎并非总是容易。 Never to offend anyone is my principle. 永远不冒犯任何人就是我的原则。

It’s against nature to remain single. 保持只身是违反自然的。 To see is to believe. 眼见为实。 For a dog to die like that is a terrible thing. = It is a terrible thing for a dog to die like that. 一条狗象那样死去是一件恐怖的事。

(for a dog是不定式的主语) For one to know everything is impossible.= It’s impossible for one to know everything. 一小我私家什么都知道是不行能的。 For his brother John to go to sea seems natural.= It seems natural for his brother John to go to sea. 他 兄弟John去当水手是很自然的事。 It’ll be a great shame for you to forget her. 你要是把她忘了,那可太不应该了。

It’s not proper for us not to accept the invitation. 我们不接受邀请不合适。(否认) It has not yet been decided when and where to discuss her resignation. 何时何地讨论她的告退还没定。 可是,下列形容词做表语时,不定式的逻辑主语由 of 引出: careless粗心的,clever智慧的,cruel残忍的,foolish愚蠢的,good好的,kind美意的 ,naughty淘气的,nice好的,polite礼貌的,right正确的,rude无礼的 ,silly愚蠢的,stupid傻的,unwise不明智的,wise明智的,wrong错误的,等等。

为什么这些词要用 of 引出不定式呢? 因为这些形容词都是形貌人的性格和特点的形容词。“It is + 形容词 +of sb. + to do sth.”这样的句型更强调某人如何如何,可以改写为:“Sb. + be + 形容词 + to do sth.” 而“for sb to do sth.”这一结构更强调做某事如何如何。

例如: 1、 It is difficult for me to learn English. 更强调学英语很难,不能写成I am difficult to learn English. (这句话含有逻辑错误。) 2、 It is unwise of you to go to the United States at this time. =You are unwise to go to the United States at this time. 强调你不明智。 It’s very kind of you to come to see us off. =You’re kind to come to see us off. 你来为我们送行太好了。

It’s unwise of him to drink and smoke so much.=He is unwise to drink and smoke so much. 他喝这么多酒、抽这么多烟是不明智的。 It’s extremely cruel of John to kill animals. John杀害动物真是残忍之极。It’s rude/polite of Jack to say this to her.  Jack对她说这个,很无礼/礼貌。(二)作宾语及宾语补语。

1、有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。常见的这类动词有:afford肩负得起,agree同意,arrang摆设,ask要求,attempt试图,beg乞求,begin开始,choose选择,claim声称,consent同意,dare敢,decide决议,decline谢绝,desire欲想,demand要求,determine刻意,expect期待,fail失败,forget忘记,hate讨厌,help资助,hope希望,intend计划,learn学习,like喜欢,long盼望,manage设法,mean计划,need需要,offer主动提出,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,prepare准备,pretend冒充,promise允许,refuse拒绝,remember记得,seek寻求,seem似乎,tend倾向,threaten威胁,undertake负担,volunteer志愿,want想要,wish希望等。

I agreed to support him. 我允许支持他。 He said he wanted to be a professor. 他说他想当教授。 My daughter preferred to have eggs and milk for breakfast when she was in her twenties. 我女儿二十几岁时早饭喜欢吃鸡蛋和牛奶。 2、不定式可以和how, which, what, who, whom, whose, when, where另有whether等词连用作宾语常跟这种结构作宾语的动词有:ask询问,advise建议,consider思量,decide决议,discover发现,discuss讨论,explain解释,find out查明,forget忘记,inquire探询,know知道,learn学会,remember记得,show演示,tell告诉,teach教,think想,understand明白,wonder想知道,等等。

例如: I don’t know where to get so much money. 我不知道去那里搞这么多钱。 They haven’t decided whether to leave or stay. 他们还没决议是走还是留。 此外,这种不定式结构还可作主语,表语,和介词宾语等。

How to live a happy life is a difficult question to answer. 怎样过幸福生活是个很难回覆的问题 The question is whom to choose for the position. 问题是这个位置选谁。 That was a discussion about how to increase their strength. 那是一次关于怎样增强他们气力的讨论。 He said nothing about what to do with her. 关于拿她怎么办,他啥也没说。

She asked my suggestion just now about where to go for her holidays. 关于去那里度假,她适才征求了我的意见。 3、有些动词需要不定式作宾语补足语。这种动词常见的有:ask请求,advise劝告,allow允许,beg乞求,believe相信,call on招呼,cause促使,compel强迫,command指挥,direct指导,enable使…能够,encourage勉励,expect期望,feel以为,force迫使,get使得,hate不喜欢,have使,hear听见,help资助,inspire鼓舞,intend 计划,invite邀请,instruct指示,know知道,lead引导,let让,like喜欢,listen to 听,look at看,make 使得, notice注意到, observe视察,order下令,permit允许,persuade说服,prefer更喜欢,press施加压力,remind提醒,request请求,teach教,tell告诉,urge敦促,want 想要,warn警告,wish希望,等等。 I asked my mother to buy a new bike for me. 我请求妈妈给我买辆新自行车。

Tony knew his girl friend to be a shy college student. 托尼知道他的女朋侪是一个含羞的大学生。 They helped you to get on the bus, didn’t they? 他们帮你上了汽车, 是吗? 4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。

这样的动词有:feel以为,have使,hear听见,help资助,let让,listen to 听,look at看,make使,notice 注意,see瞥见,observe 视察,watch寓目等,一类是感官动词,一类是使役动词。 A policeman saw the accident happen. 一位警员瞥见事故发生。 We listened to her talk about her experience abroad. 我们听她讲外洋的履历。

We’d be glad to have you work with us. 我们会很兴奋有你和我们一起事情。 上述help后面的不定式省掉to与保留to都可以。在被动语态中,上述动词后面的不定式要把省去的to还原。

I heard the dog come in. 我听见那条狗进来。 =The dog was heard to come in. 有人听见那条狗进来。 I saw her go out by bike. 我瞥见她骑着自行车出去了。 =She was seen to go out by bike. 有人瞥见她骑着自行车出去了。

Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?   我可以帮着搬起这个极重的箱子吗? You may as well help me (to)get things straight. 你不妨帮我把工具整理好。 She helped the old woman (to) cross the street. 他资助那位老太婆过街 在had better(最好),would rather(宁愿),would sooner(宁愿),would (just) as soon(宁愿),cannot but(不能不,禁不住不),cannot help but(不能不,禁不住不)等成语后面也跟不带to的不定式: He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 他宁愿听别人也不愿自己说。 He would sooner play than work. 他宁愿玩也不愿干活。

You had better go away right now. 你最好立刻就走。 I would rather take this method. 我倒愿意接纳这个措施。 I’d rather walk than take a bus. 我宁肯走也不愿坐公共汽车。

She’d rather die than lose the children. 她宁肯死也不愿失去孩子们。 I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast. She’d sooner stay at home. I would as soon do it by myself. I would just as soon stay as go. 我宁愿住下也不愿去。 We couldn’t but weep at the sad news. You can’t but respect them. Rather than和sooner than同义,都是“宁肯”,“与其…(不如)”,“不是…(而是)”的意思。

当它们放在句首时,其后跟不带to的不定式;在其它位置时其后的不定式可带也可不带to。 Rather than risk breaking up his marriage, he told his wife everything. 他把一切都告诉了妻子,而不是冒仳离的危险。 Rather than cause trouble, he left. 他宁肯走开而不愿引起贫苦。 Sooner than marry that man, she would earn her living as a waitress. 她宁肯当女招待养活自己,也不嫁给谁人男子。

He decided to write rather than telephone. 他决议写信,不打电话。 The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. 司理相信重要的是投资买新机械,而不是增加人为。

Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to do the job myself. 与其让John干这件事情,我宁肯自己动手。 4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。 在Why 起首的疑问句中跟不带to的不定式: Why not come with us? 为什么不跟我们一起来呢? =Why don\' t you come with us? Why not go for a game of tennis? 为什么不去打网球呢? Why not relax yourself? 为什么不放松你自己呢? Why not try to train your character? 为什么不造就你的性格呢? Why not give the $40 to Tom? 干吗不把那40美金给汤姆呢? For God’s sake, why bring that up again? 看在上帝的份上,干吗又提这事呢? Why split hairs over the color of the dress? 干吗对连衣裙的颜色吹毛求疵呢? Why run this risk?  干吗冒这个险? Why risk breaking the law? 干吗冒犯罪的险呢? 5、不定式作宾语尔后面另有宾语补语时,常用it来取代不定式短语,而把真正作宾语的不定式短语放在补足语后面。

常见的动词有:consider认为,feel以为,find发现,make使,think认为,等等。例如: I think it best to go. 我想最好走。

Do you consider it right to send our doctors over? 你以为派我们的医生去对吗? I found it strange for her not to come today. 我发现她今天没来是很奇怪的。 注意:hope希望,demand要求,suggest建议,这三个词不能跟不定式作宾补。

错误的句子: I hope you to be happy. 我希望你快乐。 I suggest you to take him seriously.  我建议你要把他当回事。 We demanded them to give us a definite answer. 我们要求他们给个确切的回复。 正确的句子: I hope that you’ll be happy. 我希望你快乐。

I suggest that you take him seriously. 我建议你要把他当回事。 I advise you not to take him seriously.  我建议你不要把他当回事。 We demanded that they give us a definite answer. 我们要求他们给个确切的回复。

(三)作定语。 不定式短语作定语时,一般放在被修饰的词之后,有些名词的后面常用不定式作定语。常见的有: ability能力,agreement一致,协议,ambition理想、野心,anxiety焦虑,attempt试图,campaign战役,chance时机,claim声称,courage勇气,decision决议,determination刻意,drive努力,eagerness殷切的心情,effort努力,failure失败,hope希望,intention目的意图,motive force动力,movement运动、协议,need需要,opportunity时机,plan计划,promise信誉,readiness乐意,refusal拒绝,reluctance委曲不愿,resolution刻意,tendency倾向,right权力,struggle斗争,threat威胁,time时候,way方法,willingness愿意,wish希望。

与这些词相对应的形容词或动词常接动词不定式。如ability →be able to, refusal →refuse to等。

作定语时不定式表现将要发生的行动。 There is not any one to save him. 没有任何能救他的人。 He’s a not a man to tell lies. 他不是那种撒谎的人。

He’s a man to be trusted. 他是个可以信赖的人。 He needs love to strengthen his broken heart. 他需要爱来给他那破碎的心以气力。

I don’t understand his idea to send his son to the Sahara. 我不明确他把儿子送到撒哈拉沙漠的想法。 I need to buy a box to hold my CDs.  我需要买个装CD片的盒子。

This visit is a good opportunity to learn Chinese. 这次会见是学习中文的好时机。 No investigation, no right to speak. 没有观察就没有讲话权。 Not to speak much is the best way to avoid trouble. 不多言是制止贫苦的最好措施。 This is a good way to make money. 这是个赚钱的好方法。

We were given some bread to eat.  给了我们一些面包吃。 I’ve a lot of things to take care of in the office today. 今天我办公室里由于许多事情要处置惩罚。

Have you got a key to unlock this door?  你有开这个门的钥匙吗? He needs a place to live in. 他需要有个住的地方。 This is not a pen to write with but to draw with. 这不是写字而是画画用的笔。

I have not a friend to talk with.  我没有能谈心的朋侪。 作定语时,也可以给不定式加上主语。

例如: The order for the army to start has been given. 已经发出了让队伍开始的下令。 The power for science to serve mankind is limitless.  科学为人类服务的气力是无穷的。

The letter for you to answer is placed on your desk.. 要你回的那封信放在你办公桌上。 (四)作表语,放在系动词之后。例如: To gamble is to commit suicide, but not to get rich. 赌钱就是自杀,而不是致富。 To criticize others is to make enemies. 品评别人就是树敌。

To do everything is to do nothing. 什么都做即是什么也做不成。 Perhaps the most popular way of relaxing is to participate in sports. 也许最受接待的放松方式就是到场体育运动。 This matter is for you to consider. 这个问题是要你思量的。

These apples are for the guests to eat. 这些苹果是给客人们吃的。 My hope is for all members to come together once a year. 我的希望是所有成员每年聚会一次。 My advice is for you to apologize to her.  我的建议是你向她致歉。 The question is where to go for help.  问题是到那里求助。

To respect others is to be respected.  尊重别人就是受到别人的尊重。 To see her is to love her.  见到她就会爱上她。 (五)不定式短语和疑问词连用 (who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, how,还包罗whether) (1)做主语。例如: Who to turn to is what she wants to know. 找谁帮助是她想知道的。

亚博提款安全快速

It’s problem what to do. 干什么还是个问题。 How to be wealthy, healthy and happy will always remain a question mark. 怎样才气富有,康健和幸福将永远是个问号。 (2)做表语。

例如: The question is which to take first. 问题是先拿哪一个。 What remains for you to explain is how to put the plan into practice and whose help to seek. 剩下需要你解释的是怎样实施计划以及寻求谁的资助。

The question is which of the methods to adopt. 问题是接纳这些方法中的哪一个。 (3)作宾语,常用这一结构作宾语的动词有ask, consider, decide discuss, explain, forget, find out, guess, inquire, know, learn, remember, see(=understand),show,settle(=decide),tell(=know),think,understand,wonder等。 I’ve found out where to buy them cheaply. 我发现了在那里买这些工具自制。

Do you remember when totch off the machine? 你记得什么时候关掉机械吗? I can’t tell what to do . 我说欠好怎么办。 How can you tell which button to press? 你怎么知道按哪个按钮? You know very well when to say what and how to say it. 你很清楚什么时候说什么话以及怎样说。 He can’t decide what time to leave or whether to leave at all.他不能决议何时脱离或者到底是否脱离。

有些双宾语及物动词,也可用这个结构做直接宾语。常用的有tell, inform, show, advise, ask, teach,等。

如: I showed her how to use the remote control.  我向她演示怎样使用遥控器。 The salesman told him whichtch to turn on first. 售货员告诉他先开哪个开关。 Will you advise me which to buy? 你建议我买哪个? Please inform me where to get the tickets. 请告诉我到那里去弄票。

(4)做定语。例如: I must find a pen with which to fill in this form(=to fill in this form with). 我必须找支钢笔填表用。

He offered me some hot coffee with which to refresh me spirit (=to refresh me spirit with). 他给我提供了点热咖啡提提神。 Nobel began to seek ways in which to make the explosive safer to handle.诺贝尔开始寻找那种炸药操作起来更宁静的方法。

(六)作状语。不定式短语作状语,表现目的、原因、效果等。位置一般在句尾或句首。 (1)表现目的。

如: We waved flags, beat drums and blew bugles to encourage the players. 我们摇旗擂宣扬号,来勉励运发动。 They went to the U.S.A. not to study English but to study law and business. 他们去了美国,不是为了学英语,而是为了学执法和商务。 为了强调,有时用in order to (为了)或so as to (以便)加动词原形,放在句首或句尾均可。

例如: In order to improve my English, I read China Daily every day. 为了提高英语水平,我天天都看《中国日报》。 He took a taxi so as not to miss the train. 为了不误火车,他坐了出租车。

有些不定式习习用语放在句首或句尾,作独立身分。例如: To be frank(with you), this is not satisfactory. 老实(和你)说,这不令人满足。 To be fair, she is an honest girl. 说句公正话,她是一个老实的女人。 To tell you the truth, you are wrong.. 实话告诉你,你错了。

这样的短语另有to tell you the truth实话告诉你,to conclude 最后, to begin with首先,to cut a long story short 简而言之,to go back to the point回到正题,not to make too much of it 别小题大做,to put it another way 换句话说,to hear him talk听他说话的口吻,等等。 (2)表现原因。

例如: To hear him talk in that manner, you would think him a foreigner. 他这样说话,你会以为他是外国人。The old father smiled to know his success. 知道他乐成的消息,那位老父亲笑了。 不定式短语可以和表现情绪的形容词和已往分词连用,有时说明发生这种情绪的原因,有时不是说明原因,而是和形容词一起说明主语的情况。 常见的这类形容词和已往分词有: able有能力的,afraid 畏惧的,amazed 感应惊异的,angry生气的,anxious 急于的,astonished 感应惊讶的, careful小心的, certain有掌握的,clever智慧的, comfortable舒服的,cruel残忍的,deep深的,delighted 兴奋的, difficult有难题的, disappointed感应失望的,determined 有刻意的,eager 急于的, easy容易的,fit 合适的,foolish 愚蠢的,fortunate 幸运的, free自由的,frightened感应畏惧的,glad兴奋的,good好的, happy幸福的,hard艰辛的,lucky 幸运的,overjoyed 兴奋的, pleased兴奋的,possible 可能的,proud 自豪的,ready 准备好的,relieved感应轻松的,right正确的,sad伤心的,shocked感应惊讶的, sorry惆怅的,sure 肯定的,surprised感应惊讶的, unable没能力的,useless没用的,willing 愿意的,worthy 值得的,wrong错误的等。

例如: He’ll be angry to hear these words. 听到这些话他会生气的。 You’re lucky to have me as your teacher.  有我当你们老师,你们很幸运。 He feels proud to be on the school football team.  作为校足球队队员他感应很自豪。

Be careful not to catch cold. 小心别伤风。 He’s anxious to go back straight to London. 他急于直接回伦敦。 They’ll be ready to leave in about an hour.  再有约莫一小时他们就准备好了。

The new manager is easy to get along with . 新司理很容易相处。 This river is broad, deep and good tom in. 这条河宽且深,是游泳的好地方。 Your sofa is comfortable to sit in.  你的沙发坐上去很舒服。

(3)不定式做效果状语只限于下面几个词:learn得知,find 发现,see 瞥见,hear 听见, to be told被见告,make 使得 等。only+不定式常表现出乎意料的效果。

例如: He hurried to the airport to learn that the flight had already taken off. 他急遽赶到机场,却得知飞机已经起飞了。 He returned home from his holiday only to find that his house had been broken into. 他休假回家,却发现他的屋子被破门而入了。 (4) 不定式还可以与“be said, be reported,…”等连用组成复合谓语。这一结构可酿成“It’s said, It’s reported,…”(见被动语态部门)。

如: An explosion is reported to have happened, and three are known to have been killed. = It’s reported that an explosion has happened and it’s known that three have been killed. 据报道发生了一起爆炸,已知三人被炸死。 (七)不定式的时态。动词不定式一般有三种时态形式,即一般式、举行式和完成式。

(1) 一般式(to+动词原形):表现与主句谓语动词行动同时(或险些同时)发生或在主句谓语动词之后发生的事情。例如: We’re happy to have you on our side. 有你在我们这边我们很兴奋。 I saw him go out. 我瞥见他出去了。

( 不定式go out 与 see同时发生。) They invited me to have dinner with them.  他们邀请我和他们一起吃晚饭。 I hope to see you again. 我希望再见到你(to see发生在hope之后) (2) 举行式(to be+现在分词):表现主句谓语的行动发生时,不定式行动正在举行。

例如: She’s said /believed to be living nearby. 听说/据信她就住在四周。 When he came in, I happened to be sleeping in bed. 他进来时,我碰巧正在床上睡觉。

They seem/appear to be enjoying themselves. 看上去他们似乎很快活。 He pretended to be doing his homework when he heard his father’s sound. 他听见父亲的声音,冒充正在做作业。

The president was reported to be visiting the hospital. 据报道总统正在会见那家医院。 (3)完成式(to have+已往分词):表现在主句谓语的行动之前发生的事情。 如:I’m glad to have met your parents here. 我很兴奋在这儿见到了你怙恃。

(已见过) I’m sorry to have kept him waiting for me so long. 我很歉仄让他等了我这样久。(已经等过了) (八)不定式的被动语态。当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表现的行动的蒙受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式。 不定式的被动形式有两种:一般式 to be+已往分词;完成式 to have been+已往分词。

例如: You’re lucky to have been accepted . 你很幸运已经被接受了。 These criminals are to be hanged .  这些罪犯是将被绞死的。

We’re glad to have been invited. 受到邀请我们很兴奋。 What’s to be done next? 下一步做什么? It is an honor for me to be asked to speak here. 我很荣幸应邀在这里讲话。 为了制止重复,不定式可省略,但to有时保留,有时不保留。

例如: You will make it if you try (to). 如果你努力,你会乐成的。 George says he is going to leave Shanghai, but I don’t think he really wants to. George说要脱离上海,可是我不认为他真的愿意走。 Some of them retired, and others were ready to. 一些人退休了,另有的准备退。

He always speaks faster than he needs to. 他说话总是没须要的快。 I’d like to do it now, but I haven’t got the time (to).  我倒是想现在干,但没时间。

“Would you go there with me?” “I’m glad to.” “你愿意和我一起去吗?”“愿意。” “Did you pass the exam?” “No, I tried (to), but I failed.” “你考试及格了吗?”“没有,我努力了,但没乐成。 “Do you want to sing them an English song?” “I prefer not to.” “你愿意为他们唱首英文歌吗?”“我不想唱。

” You’d better sing an English song if they ask you (to) again.如果他们再要求你,你最后唱一首英文歌。 后面常省略不定式而保留to的结构,另有: used to 经常 be going to 计划 mean to  计划 ought to   应该 plan to 计划 want to  想要 (九)两个不定式由and, or, except, but, than 毗连时,第二个可省略to,尤其是两个不定式精密相连时。例如: I intend to call on him and discuss this question again. 我计划去造访他并和他谈谈这个问题。 I’d like to lie down and go to sleep. 我想躺下睡觉。

You’re free to talk or laugh here. 在这里你可以随便说笑。 I’m anxious to go and ask him about it. 我急于去问问他这个事。 Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later? 你想现在吃午饭还是再等会儿? We had nothing to do except (to) look at the posters outside the cinema. 我们无事可做,只有看看影戏院外面的招贴。 He had nothing to do except talk nonsense. 除了乱说八道,他没此外事干。

I would rather die than be insulted. 我宁死也不受侮辱。 B、动名词 动名词可以起名词的作用,在句子中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。动名词仍保留动词的一般特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语,组成动名词短语。 动名词的否认形式是在前面加上not, never等否认词。

(一)做主语和表语。动名词短语用and连起来做主语时,谓语用复数形式。例如: Fishing in this lake is forbidden. 这个湖里克制钓鱼 Going abroad for a visit and settling down abroad are two different things. 出国会见和在外洋定居是两件差别的事情。

It seems that reading English is easier than speaking it.似乎读英语比说英语容易。 My favorite hobby is fishing/collecting stamps .  我最喜欢的喜好是钓鱼/集邮。

在It’s no use; It’s (no) good; It’s useless ; It’s (not) wise; It’s (not) worthwhile; It’s ofgreat (no, little) importance 等习惯表达中,It为形式主语,而将做主语的动名词短语放在后面。例如: It’s no use /good ringing her up now. 现在给她打电话没用了。 Is it worthwhile bargaining two hours for two cents? 为两分钱论价两小时值得吗? It’s wise trying again. 再试一次是明智的。

It is of great importance fighting against pollution.  制止污染有重要意义。 It is no use operating on the sick man. He should have been sent here early. 给这个病人做手术已经没用了。本应该早些把他送来。

It is no good smoking; you’d better give it up. 吸烟没利益,你最好戒掉。 (二)动名词短语作宾语。 常用的能接动名词的动词有:admit认可,appreciate 感谢,avoid 制止,advise 建议,can’t help 不禁,celebrate 庆祝,consider 思量,complete 完成, contemplate沉思、计划,defer推迟,delay 延期,deny 否认,detest 痛恨,discontinue 停止, dislike不喜欢,dispute差别意,endure 忍耐,enjoy 喜欢, escape逃脱,excuse 原谅, fancy想象,feel like 想要, finish竣事, 严禁,forgive 原谅,hinder 阻碍,imagine想象,keep 保持,mention 提到,mind 在意,miss 错过,pardon 饶恕、原谅,permit允许,postpone 推迟,practise 实践、训练,prevent 阻止, recall 回忆, report陈诉,resent 怨恨, resist抵制、阻止,risk冒险,stop 停止,suggest 建议,understand 明确、明白,等等。

例如: He avoided giving me a definite answer. 他制止给我一个正确谜底。 David suggested selling your dog and car to pay the debt.  戴维建议卖掉你的狗和车抵债。 (我们把这句话改为虚拟语气:David suggested that you (should) sell your dog and car to pay the debt. ) I couldn’t risk missing that train. 我可不敢冒误了那趟火车的险。

下列动词既可用动词不定式又可用动名词做宾语: abhor憎恶,attempt 试图,begin 开始,cannot bear 无法忍受,cannot stand无法忍受,cease停止,continue,继续,,decline 拒绝,deserve值得,disdain蔑视,dread畏惧,endure忍耐,forget忘记,hate 痛恨,intend计划,learn学,like 喜欢,loathe厌恶,love喜欢,mean意思是、意味着,need需要,neglect疏忽,omit省略,忽略,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,propose建议,regret忏悔,remember记得,require需要,scorn蔑视、瞧不起,start开始,try实验,努力,entail必须,involve涉及,necessitate使成为须要,等。以上多数动词用不定式或用动名词作宾语意思一样,个体差别。

(三)动名词短语作介词宾语的时候最多。 尤其是在短语动词后面。

如: The children are fond of listening to pop music. 孩子们喜欢盛行音乐。 Are you interested in going to the show? 你有兴趣去看演出吗? Thomas insisted on doing it in his own way.  托马斯坚持按他自己的方法做这件事。 我们把这句话改为虚拟语气:Thomas insisted that he (should) do it in his own way. Excuse me for interrupting you. 请原谅我打扰你, Since returning from Xi’an, he has been busy. 从西安回来后,他一直很忙。

He warned me againstmming in this lake. 他警告我不要在这个湖里游泳。 改为不定式短语:He warned me not tom in this lake. We came out without being seen. 我们出来没被人瞥见。 Before finishing your homework, you’d better not go out.  做完作业之前,你最好别出去。

改为用before 作连词:Before you finish your homework, you’d better not go out. (四)动名词也可以有自己的逻辑主语,就是在动名词短语前面加上物主代词或名词的所有格。 带逻辑主语的动名词短语可做主语,宾语,表语等。在非正式文体当中,经常把物主代词简化为宾格人称代词,把名词 所有格简化为名词。

例如: I insisted on his (him) going to the cinema with me. 我坚持要他和我一起去看影戏。 I can hardly imagine Peter(Peter’s) sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. 我简直不能想象彼得会在五天内横渡大西洋。 Linda’s coming will do you good.(主语) 林达的到来对你有利益。

What made him angry was their (them) laughing.(表语)使他生气的是他们笑。 (五)动名词的完成式和被动语态: (1)完成式表现动名词的行动发生在谓语行动之前。例如: I apologize for having broken my promise. 我没有遵守信誉,我致歉。 I don’t remember having talked with him before. 我不记得以前曾和亚博提款快速官方入口他谈过话。

I regret not having met you before my marriage/before I got married. 恨不相逢未嫁时。 (2)当动名词的逻辑主语是动名词行动的工具或蒙受者时,动名词要用被动语态。例如: I could no longer stand being treated like that. 我再也不能忍受被那样看待。

She was proud of having been trained in the U.K. 在英国受过训,她感应自豪。 他不喜欢讽刺别人。 →He doesn’t like laughing at others. 他不喜欢被人讽刺。

→He doesn’t like being laughed at. (六)某些动词可接不定式也可接动名词做宾语,但意义有差异。 (1)like, love, hate, prefer等表现喜爱,厌恶的动词后面,可用动名词也可用不定式作宾语,意义差异不大。但当这些词前面有should或would时,一定要用动词不定式作宾语。表现想要,愿意,计划。

例如: She likes dancing. But she wouldn’t like to dance with you. 她喜欢跳舞。(泛指)但他不喜欢和你跳。

(特指) He looked tired and I didn’t like to disturb him. 他看上去很累,我不想打扰他。 I don’t like reading, but I’d like to read a magazine in bed tonight. 我不喜欢看书,可是今天晚上倒想躺在床上看本杂志。 Little Jim should love to be taken to the theatre this evening. 小吉姆今晚喜欢被带去看戏。 The reporter would /should like to see you again. 那位记者还想见见你。

We don’t like talking about people behind their backs.我们不喜欢背后议论人。 hate to do sth 表现“真不想做某事,(但不得不做)”。 如:I hate to disturb you now, but I have no choice. 我真不想现在打扰你,但没有措施。

(2) forget to do sth.忘记去做某事(未做) forget doing sth.忘记做过某事(已做) 例如: The light in the office is still on. She forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着。她忘记关了。(关灯的行动没做) The light in the office is off. She turned it off, but she forgot turning it off. 办公室的灯没亮着。

是她关的,但她忘记关过灯。(已关过灯,她忘了) 她昨天又来还我二百元钱。

她忘记上个月还我了。→She came to pay back RMB 200 to me again yesterday. She forgot having paid it back to me last month. (3)remember to do sth.记着去做某事 remember doing sth. 记得做过某事 例如: Do you remember meeting me at a party last year? 你记得去年一次宴会上见过我吗?(已见过面) You must remember to leave tomorrow. 你一定要记着明天脱离。(还没脱离) (4)stop to do sth. 停下往复做另一件事 stop doing sth. 停止做某事 例如: She stopped to have a rest on a big rock by the side of the path. 她停下来,在路边的一块大石头上休息。

As long as you live, your heart never stops beating, 只要你在世,你的心脏就永远不会停止跳动。 (5) regret to do sth. 对尚未做的或正在做的事情表现遗憾 regret doing sth. 对已做的事情表现忏悔 例如: I regret saying that.  我忏悔说了那话。

I regret to tell you the following truth.  我很是遗憾地告诉你下面这个事实。 (6)try to do sth努力去做某事 try doing sth.做某事试一试 例如: You must try to do it again. 你必须想方设法再做一次。

Let’s try doing the work in some other way. 咱们用另一种方法做这事情试试。 (7) mean to do sth. 计划、意欲做某事 mean doing sth.意味着做某事 例如: If it means delaying more than a week, I’ll not wait. 如果这意味着拖延一个多星期,我就不等了。 I mean to help you, and nothing else. 我想资助你们,没此外。

我不是想伤害你,对不起。→I didn’t mean to hurt you. I’m sorry. 宣布台独就是对中国宣战。→Declaring Taiwan independent means declaring war on China. (8) go on to do sth.做了一件事又去做另一件 go on doing sth继续做原来的事情 例如: After he finished his maths, he went on to do his physics. 他作完数学后,接着又做物理。 I hope it won’t go on raining all day long.  我希望这雨别一天下个没完。

C、分词 分词有现在分词和已往分词两种。 作为谓语,现在分词和be 一起组成举行时;已往分词和be一起组成被动语态,和have一起组成完成时。例如: I am reading a novel by Maupassant. 我正在看一本莫泊桑写的小说。

(现在分词和be 一起表现主语正在举行的行动。) Mr. Robinson has drunk five glasses of wine already. 鲁宾逊先生已经喝了五杯酒了。(已往分词和have 一起表现主语已经完成的行动。

) The gold fish bowl was broken by Xiao Tao just now. 金鱼缸适才被小陶打破了。(已往分词和be 一起表现主语是行动的蒙受者。

) 作为非谓语形式,分词可用作形容词和副词,在句子中充当定语、表语、补语和状语。但它仍保持动词的一般特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语。分词和自己的宾语、状语组成分词短语。 现在分词有一般式和完成式。

它的一般式表现和谓语动词所表现的行动同时发生的行为或存在的状态;它的完成式(having + 已往分词)表现在谓语动词所表现的行动之前发生的行动或存在的状态。 现在分词有主动语态和被动语态(being + 已往分词)。 已往分词只有一般式,表现在谓语动词所表现的行动之前发生的行动。已往分词(及物动词)自己可以表现被动的寄义,因而没有此外被动形式。

例如: Having failed three times, he didn’t want to try again. (=As he had failed three times, he didn’t want to try again.) 他失败了三次,不想再干了。(having failed 表现发生在前的行动) Walking along the sands, Crusoe saw in the sand the mark of a man’s foot. (=While he was walking along the sands, Crusoe…) 克鲁索沿着沙滩走的时候,瞥见沙上有人的脚印。

(walking 表现同时发生的行动) The question being discussed seems important. (=The question is being discussed. It seems important.) 正在讨论的问题似乎很重要。 The old days are gone. 旧时代一去不复返了。

(gone 表现完成的状态) I had my hair cut yesterday. 我昨天剃头了。(cut 是及物动词的已往分词,表现“被人剃头”。) 分词的否认形式是在分词短语前面加上not, never等否认词组成。例如: Not fearing the fire, the child touched and got a finger burnt. 小孩儿不知道怕火,用手去摸,把手指烫了。

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Not knowing how to find the subway, I asked a policeman for help. 我不知道怎样找到地铁,就去找警员帮助。(一)现在分词和已往分词的区别 (1)在语态上现在分词表现主动的意思,表现它所修饰的人或物的行为;及物动词的已往分词表现被动的意思,表现它所修饰的人或物是行动的蒙受者。换言之,现在分词是它修饰的身分所作出的行动,已往分词是它修饰的身分所蒙受的行动。

例如: convincing facts 有说服力的事实 / convinced audience 被说服了的听众 the exploiting class 聚敛阶级 / the exploited class被聚敛阶级 a frightening dog一条让人畏惧的狗 / a frightened dog一条被吓坏了的狗 driving gears主动齿轮 / driven gears从动齿轮 (2)在时间上,现在分词往往表现行动正在举行,已往分词表现行动已完成。例如: the rising sun (正在升起的太阳) / the risen sun(升起的太阳) the falling rain(正在下的雨)/ the fallen leaves(落下的树叶) stolen money(被盗的钱/偷来的钱)/ill-gotten wealth(不义之财) a high-flying kite(高飞的鹞子) 再看一些例子: boiling water 沸腾的水/boiled water 开水/developing countries 生长中国家/developed countries 蓬勃国家/an exciting story 令人激动的故事/ excited people 激动的人们 (3)做表语时的差别。现在分词做表语表现主语所具有的特征,意思是“令人如何”。已往分词多表现主语所处的状态,意思是“感应如何”。

例如: His lecture is disappointing. I’m disappointed. 他的演讲令人失望。我感应失望。

We are surprised to hear the news. The news is surprising. 我们听到那消息吃了一惊。那消息令人受惊。 The situation is encouraging. We’re encouraged. 形式使人鼓舞。我们感应鼓舞。

常用的另有:amusing/amused,astonishing/astonished,disappointing/disappointed,exciting/excited,frightening/frightened,interesting interested,moving/moved, relaxing/relaxed,satisfying/satisfied,shocking/shocked,surprising/surprised,terrifying/terrified,tiring/tired,worrying/worried等等。 (4)做状语的区别,分词短语在句中可做时间、原因、方式、陪同状语。现在分词的行动和谓语行动同时或险些同时发生、意思是主动的。

而已往分词的行动在谓语行动之前发生、意思是被动的。例如: Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note. 看到没人在家,她决议给他们留个条。(主动意义,险些同时) The secretary worked late into the night, preparing a speech for the president. 秘书事情到晚上很晚,给总统准备一篇演说。

(主动意义,同时) Tired of the noise, he closed the window. 对噪音感应厌烦,所以他把窗户关上。(被动意义,在谓语之前) Deeply moved, she thanked me again and again. 她深深地受了感动,再三谢我。(被动意义,在谓语之前) Persuade by my mother, she gladly went there alone. 在我母亲劝说下,她才兴奋地独自去那里。

(被动意义,在谓语之前) 如果现在分词的行动在谓语行动之前发生,现在分词要用完成形式,但意思仍然是主动的。例如: Having watered the vegetables, they began to pick up the Apples.=After they had watered the vegetables, they began to pick up the apples.他们浇完了蔬菜之后就开始摘苹果。 Having finished the work, he packed his tools and left. 完工后,他收拾起工具走了。

分词做状语时,前面可用连词或介词。例如: After eating my dinner quickly, I went to see Jim off. 我赶忙吃过晚饭就去给吉姆送行。

Though built before the Second World War, the engine is still in good condition. 只管是在二战以前建的,这引擎仍然处于良好状态。 Unless paying by credit card, please pay in cash. 如果不用信用卡付款,请用现金付。 Tom will never do this unless compelled. 汤姆永远也不会干这种事,除非被逼无奈。 She’s been quite different since coming back from America. 从美国回来后,她大变了。

 (二)用法 1.作定语。作定语的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前。如果被修饰的词是something,anything,everything,nothing等,则分词放在这些词之后。

分词短语通常放在被修饰的名词之后。例如: This is an interesting book. (=This is a book. It is interesting. )这是一本有趣的书。

There is something interesting in the news. (=There is something in the news. It is interesting.)消息中有些有趣的事。 The man sitting by the window is our math teacher. (=The man who is sitting by the window is our math teacher.)靠窗户坐着的谁人人是我们的数学老师。 The machine run by the old worker is made in Shanghai. (=The machine that is run by the old worker is made in Shanghai.)那位老工人开的机械是上海造的。 Most of students singing were girls. (=Most of the students who were singing…) 唱歌的学生多数是女生。

Many of the villagers questioned refused to answer. (=Many of the villagers who were questioned…) 被问的许多村里人都拒绝。 注意:(1)分词作定语与动名词作定语的区别:分词和它所修饰的名词有逻辑上的主、谓关系。动名词则没有这种关系,而表现它所修饰的词的用途或有关行动。

(2)现在分词作定语时,它表现行动正在举行或与谓语动词所表现的行动同时发生(或差不多同时发生)。(3)be的现在分词being不能用作定语(可用作状语或被动语态中的助动词)。

表现这种观点时,也用主从复合句结构。 2、作状语。

分词和分词短语作状语时,可以表现时间、原因、行为方式等意义。表现时间和原因的分词短语相当于对应的状语从句。例如: Seeing the teacher entering the room, the students stood up. (=When the students saw the teacher entering the room. They stood up.)学生们瞥见老师走进房间,都站了起来。

(时间) Heated,the Metal expands. (=The metal expands if /when it is heated.)金属受热而膨胀。(条件、时间) Being excited, I couldn’t go to sleep.(=As I was excited, I couldn’t go to sleep.)我兴奋得睡不着觉。

(原因) Being a student, he was interested in sports. (=As he was a student, he was interested in sports.)他是个学生,所以对体育运动感兴趣。(原因) Inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech, Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder. (=As they were inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech, Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder。)李华和他的同学们受到杨博士讲话的鼓舞,决议越发努力学习物理。 (原因) The children went away laughing. (=The children went away.They laughed as they went.) 孩子们笑着走开了。

(行为方式) The professor stood there, surrounded by many students. (=The professor stood there. He was surrounded by many students.) 教授站在那里,许多学生围着他。(行为方式) While reading the newspaper, father nodded from time to time. (=While he was reading the newspaper, father nodded from time to time.) 看报时,父亲不时所在头。(时间)(分词前,可加表现时间的连词while或when。) 3、作宾语补足语。

例如: Can you get the machine going again? 你能使机械再动起来吗? You should have your hair cut. 你该剃头了。 I saw him coming last night. 我昨天晚上瞥见他来了。 4、作表语。例如: The film is very moving. 这部影片很感人。

Your homework is well done. 你的作业做得好。 The visitors looked surprised. 观光者看上去很惊讶。 The boys were seen walking on the grass. 有人瞥见孩子们在草地上散步。

5、作句子独立身分(分词有自己的逻辑主语时,称为独立主格结构) 。例如: Flags flying, the army men marched in the streets. 旌旗飘扬,军队在街上行进。 All his ribs broken, he lay half dead. 他的肋骨全部折断,半死不活地躺着。

分词(短语)作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。如果纷歧致,必须用独立主格结构来表现,也就是在分词前面加上它的逻辑主语。 My wife had a long talk with Sally, explaining why she didn’t want the children to play together我妻子与莎莉谈了很长时间,解释她为什么不想让孩子们在一起玩。(现在分词explaining是句子主语my wife做的行动,它们之间是主动关系) Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. 如果对这些树多体贴一些,它们原来会长得更好。

(已往分词given表现的行动是句子主语the trees蒙受的行动,它们之间是被动关系) We explored the caves, Peter acting as guide. 我们到那山洞探险,彼得做向导。 (独立主格) The train having gone, we had to wait another day. 分词短语做状语时,前面可以加上连词或介词,可是分词短语和句子之间不能用并列连词(如but,and),因为并列连词接的是两个并列身分, 而分词短语只是全句的一个状语部门。

分词和主句之间可用逗号。例如: 误:Having been told many times, but he still couldn’t understand it. 正:He was told many times, but he still couldn’t understand it. 注意:(1)分词作状语时,逻辑主语即句子的主语;否则要用从句或独立主格结构来表现。例如: Looking out of the window, I saw lots of people there.(=When I looked out of the window, I saw lots of people there.) 我往窗外一看,瞥见那儿有许多人。

(looking out of the window的逻辑主语,就是句子的主语I。) (2)在see,hear,watch,notice等动词后,用动词不定式作宾语补语,通常表现(强调)行动从开始到竣事的全历程。如果用现在分词作宾语补语,则通常表现行动正在举行。例如: We sat two hours and watched the teacher make the experiment. 我们坐了两个小时,看老师做实验。

(两小时一直在看老师做实验) We passed by the classroom and saw the teacher making the experiment. 我们走过课堂,瞥见老师在做实验。(只是在走过教宰的一刹那间,瞥见老师正存做实验) I saw him enter the room, unlock a drawer, take out a document, photograph it and put it back. 我瞥见他走进房间,打开抽屉,拿出一份文件,拍了照又放回去(表现一个接一个的一系列行动的全历程时,用动词不定式。 I noticed them sitting in the corner and talking about something secret. 我注意到他们坐在角落里在谈论什么秘密事儿。

(表现几个同时正在举行的行动,用现在分词) (3)在“have+宾语+分词”的结构中,用现在分词或已往分词表现的意义差别。在“have+宾语+现在分词”的结构中,现在分词所表现的行动往往是主体让(叫、使、听任、允许)客体做的,或使客体保持或处于某种状态。例如: He had the fire burning day and night. 他让火日夜燃烧着。 Father had me swimming the whole summer vacation. 父亲让我整个署假天天游泳。

在“have(get)+宾语+已往分词”的结构中,已往分词所表现的行动往往是别人做的或与主体的意志无关。例如: Mary had her dress washed. 玛丽叫别人洗了她的衣服。(衣服是被洗) had his legs broken. 他的腿骨折断了。

(表现与主体意志无关的客观遭遇) I had my watch stolen yesterday. 昨天我的表被人偷了。(表是被偷) They had Jack beaten. 他们叫人打了杰克。(Jack是被打) (4)分词作表语时,现在分词有“主动”、“举行”、“使”等意义;已往分词有“被动”、“完成”“受”、“感应…”等意义。

例如: The story is interesting. 这个故事很有意思。(故事使人感兴趣) He is interested in dancing. 他对舞蹈感兴趣。 (5)谓语动词的现在举行时和作表语的现在分词形式相同;被动语态动词谓语和作表语的已往分词形式相同,但两者的意思纷歧样。

试比力: They are moving their bed.他们正在搬床。 (are moving是谓语,表现主体的行动) The story is very moving.这个故事很感人。 (moving是表语,表现主体的特征) Her homework was done by her sister.她的作业是她姐姐做的。

(was done是谓语动词被动语态) Her homework is well done.她的作业做得很好。( done是表语) (6)generally speaking(一般地说),roughly speaking(大略地说),strictly speaking(严格地说)等现在分词结构都是习习用语,在句子中作插入语。

例如: Generally speaking, a footballer of 20 is better than one of 40。 一般地说,二十岁的足球队员比四十岁的强。

(7)分词短语的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,而独立结构的逻辑主语和句子的主语是差别的。例如: The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. 末班公共汽车已开走了,我们只好走路回家。(三)分词的时态和语态 已往分词可以表现“被动”和“完成”等意义,因此没有时态和语态方面的形式变化。

下面谈一下现在分词的时态和语态。 1.现在分词的完成式(having+已往分词)表现的行动发生在谓语动词所表现的行动之前或两个行动在时间上有一定的距离。

例如: Having written the letter, John went to the post office. (=After he had written the letter, John went to the post office. 约翰写完信后,就去邮局了。 Having lived in Beijing for years, Lao Wang knows the city quite well. (=As he has lived in Beijing for years, Lao Wang knows the city quite well.) 老王在北京住了多年,所以对这个都会很熟悉。 Having drunk two glasses of water, Xiao Ma felt a little better. (=After he had drunk two glasses of water Xiao Ma felt a little better.) 小马喝了两杯水,感受好一些了。 一般式和完成式现在分词都可以表现先后接连发生的行动。

在可能引起误解的场所应该用完成式现在分词表现先发生的行动。例如: Opening the drawer, he took out his wallet. (=He opened the drawer and took out his wallet.) 他打开抽屉,拿出钱包。 Coming into the room, he put down his bag. (=he came into the room and put down his bag.) 他走进房间,放下提包。 Having brushed his teeth, Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast. 布朗先生刷过牙,就下楼来吃早饭。

(此句如写成:Brushing his teeth, Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast.可能指“边刷牙,边下楼’。) 2.现在分词的被动语态(being +已往分词)通常表现“正在被…”的意思。如强调现在分词表现的行动发生在谓语动词所表现的行动之前时,可用现在分词被动语态的完成式(having + been +已往分词)。

例如: The bridge being built will be completed next month. 正在修建的那座桥将于下月完成。 Having been kept out of the room about half an hour for his returning late, Tom was let in. 汤姆回来晚了,所以被关在门外半小时左右才让他进去。-亚博取款免手续费。

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